Earth dating systems

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Like GFDL’s physical climate models, these simulation tools are based on an atmospheric circulation model coupled with an oceanic circulation model, with representations of land, sea ice and iceberg dynamics.

ESMs incorporate interactive biogeochemistry, including the carbon cycle.

Scenarios of emissions and other drivers are used to assess the impact of a range of human activities on these components.

Chemical tracers are also tracked in the atmosphere.This two-way cause and effect relationship between an event and a sphere is called an interaction.Interactions also occur among the spheres; for example, a change in the atmosphere can cause a change in the hydrosphere, and vice versa.These runs include an 1860 control, historical and future (RCP8.5) simulations.Finally, a number of integrations were made to explore various aspects of the carbon feedbacks in these models.

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