Highly exudating

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However, when the wound becomes ‘chronic’ and non-healing with persistent, abnormal inflammation or when infection becomes established, exudate takes on a different guise and generates clinical challenges.In the chronic wound, exudate contains proteolytic enzymes and other components not seen in acute wounds [1].In chronic wounds, the colour, consistency and amount of exudate may change as a result of various physiological processes [4] See Table 2. Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus, β-haemolytic group A streptococci and Bacteroides fragilis, produce fibrinolysins. This has been attributed in part to specific bacterial virulence mechanisms that result in vasodilation and extravasation [7].Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a non-specific enzyme that degrades fibrin. Gautam et al (2001) [8] have described a process whereby neutrophils attracted to the site of injury trigger the release of heparin-binding protein (HBP).Zetuvit E pads consist of a non-adherent, non-woven, polypropylene material with an absorbent core.This gives a high-level of absorption and creates a barrier against contamination, getting your player back in the game.Wound exudate was described by the Swiss physician Paracelsus (c1491-1541) as nature’s balsam [3].It is derived from serum through the inflammatory/extravasation process.

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It has a high protein content (although lower than that found in serum), with a specific gravity greater than 1.020.Certain bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulate the release of HBP from neutrophils, thus aggravating chronic inflammation by augmenting endothelial hyper-permeability [9].Recent research has indicated that some bacteria actually express histamine and thus, if present, produce an additional physiological source of histamine in the wound environment. morganii Gram-negative rods have been found to express histamine [10].Bacteria isolated from chronic wounds have been found to produce physiologically significant levels of histamine [11] [12].It has yet to be determined if the production of this pro-inflammatory agent may be effectively managed through the application of antihistamines.

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